objective, science-based information about a wide variety of pesticide-related subjects. Prior to deciding on a method
of treatment it is important to identify the pest. To assist you with questions you may have about certain pests the
following links have been provided. For additional information on how to control a pest contact your County Extension
Know Your Adversary
The first step in insect control is to know what pest you are dealing with. Each of the domestic cockroach species prefers
different areas in a residence so identification is important for best control. A typical infestation is composed of individuals
of different sizes, including reproducing adults with wings (usually) and immature individuals that do not have wings. Unlike
some insects (butterflies, for example), immature and adult cockroaches live in the same habitat and eat the same foods.
Immature cockroaches, called nymphs, are smaller than adults, and hatch from egg cases that the adult
female deposits. As the nymph grows, it sheds its "skin" or exoskeleton so it can get larger. Each nymphal stage is
larger than the previous one, and the adult emerges after the last nymphal stage. This figure shows the life cycle (egg, nymph
and adult) of the German cockroach.
Although only two nymphal stages are shown, the German cockroach has at least six. Each cockroach species has a unique
number of nymphal stages (see Chapter 3). A picture of the brown-banded cockroach life stages including the egg capsule (egg case), nymph, adult male and adult female is shown also.
All stages can be readily identified, but the features of the adult are larger and more distinctive so we will concentrate
on identifying the adults. Identification is not difficult, but you must recognize features on the cockroach body. Refer to
the body parts of a cockroach adult in the following figure.
Head. On the head, cockroaches have chewing mouthparts that are used to chew or scrape off food too
large for them to swallow whole. Cockroaches also have a pair of compound eyes, but have poor vision except that they distinguish
easily between light and dark. You have probably noticed that these pests are nocturnal, (active at night and hidden during
the daytime) because they are repelled by light. Also on the head, is a pair of long, well-developed antennae, sensory organs
that detect odors and vibrations in the air. Inside the head is a small brain that coordinates the various body functions.
Thorax. On the thorax, all cockroaches have three pairs of legs. Adults of most of the domestic species have two
pairs of wings, although one species, the oriental cockroach, has poorly developed wings in both sexes. Even though they have
wings, these pests are poor flyers. They do have excellent running abilities, however. Cockroaches can even defy the law of
gravity and crawl across the wall or ceiling. There is a large plate-like structure on the thorax, just behind the head. This
structure, the pronotum, has color patterns that distinguish several cockroach species so it is an important anatomical
Abdomen. The abdomen of the cockroach houses the reproductive system. The eggs are enclosed in a tough egg case
which protects them from drying out. The female of one species, the German cockroach, carries the egg case around with her
until the eggs within it are nearly ready to hatch. The other three species often glue the egg case in a convenient place
or simply drop it somewhere. Cockroaches show no parental care and may even be cannibalistic, eating their young if no food
is available. They eat injured and dead cockroaches, too.
On the end of the abdomen, there are a pair of cerci, projections that also serve as sensory organs. Cerci function
in a similar manner to antennae, sensing vibrations through air or ground. Cerci are directly connected to the legs of the
cockroach via abdominal nerve ganglia (a secondary brain), which is an important survival adaptation. Whenever a cockroach
"feels" a presence with its cerci, its legs start running, even before the brain receives the signal. Once a cockroach is
running, you have to be pretty fast to step on it.
An identification key is provided in Appendix D, by using the key and referring to the individual cockroach species and comparison pictures, you will be able to correctly identify the species of cockroach you are dealing with. Remember, identification is essential
to a successful cockroach control program.
Pest Control Advice
University Extension Resources
- AphidsNoMore - Offers nozzle for rinsing pests off of plants.
- Concept Research - Manufacturer, importer and stockist of brand deterrents to rid property of cats, rats, mice, moles and other pests; location
of company not disclosed.
- DIY Pest Control Direct UK online shop - DIY pest control supplies for home and business. Traps, rodenticides, insecticides for rats, mice cockroaches, flies and
birds. Secure online ordering, next day delivery available.
- DIYPCS - DIY pest control and fly killer products. Secure online ordering. Based in Preston.
- The Flyscreens Shop - Offer insect control and repellent products. Catalogue and contact information.
- Garden Watcher - Sonic protection from cats and foxes, to order on-line.
- GeoMatCo - Sells weed prevention matting membrane.
- Hunter Pole UK Ltd - Products for pest control, gardening and the home by mail orders. Includes ultrasonic repellers, humane traps and innovations
for pets, garden, fitness, diy, car and heraldry.
- Martley Electronics - Worcester-based manufacturers of electronic pest control devices including bird scarers and rat killers offer online product
- Pest Control Supplies and The Zapper from Helst - Specialists in non-poisonous environmentally friendly and humane products for the control of pests, rats and mice.
- The Pyramid Slug Trap - Eco-friendly trap for slugs using no poisons; order via post from Malton, North Yorkshire importers.
- Slug Rings - Cottage industry selling solid copper rings which protect vulnerable plants from slugs and snails in an environmentally
friendly way. Product information including prices and order form.
- Stop Non Toxic Slug and Snail deterrent - Dehydrating paste system for sale online.
- The Tin Pot Company - Supplies garden equipment and gifts including watering cans, garden gifts and the SLUG X slug trap with secure online ordering.
- Trap-man.com - UK mail order suppliers of live and dead catch animal and vermin traps.
Pest Control Information-
provides objective, science-based information about a wide variety of pesticide-related subjects. Prior to deciding
on a method of treatment it is important to identify the pest. To assist you with questions you may have about certain
pests the following links have been provided. For additional information on how to control a pest contact your County
Pest Control Advice
- PIC Corporation - Rodent and insect control and repellents. Includes product line, specials, individual pest information, and
-- http://www.pic-corp.com/www/ Shopping: Home and Garden: Pest Control (4)
- Insect and Rodent Pest Control Information - Insect and rodent pest control articles covering a broad variety pests and methods of control.
http://www.bugspray.com Home: Homeowners: Pest Control (1)
- Ultra Shield Rodent Control - Using ultrasonic instead of chemicals to rid your home or business.
Shopping: Home and Garden: Pest Control: Mechanical: Animal Pests (2)
- Do it yourself Pest Control Products - Insect and rodent information, professional pest control products and application measures .
http://www.doyourownpestcontrol.com Home: Gardens: Pest and Disease Control (1)
- ABC Pest and Lawn Care Services - Termite baiting, rodent and pest control, lawn care and landscaping specialists for residential, commercial,
and industrial. Serving Austin, Dallas, San Antonio, Houston, Ft. Worth, and College Station.
Regional: North America: United States: Texas: Business and Economy: Home and Garden (1)
- C & C Pest Control of Houston - Services include pest, termite, and rodent control and lawn care.
Regional: North America: United States: Texas: Metro Areas: Houston: Business and Economy (1)
- Predator Pest Control - Specialise in bird, rodent and insect infestations and removal of drug-user equipment. Contact details and list
-- http://www.predator-pestcontrol.com/ Regional: Europe: United Kingdom: Business and Economy: Industries: Agriculture and Forestry: Pest and
Disease Control (1)
- Ontario County Records and Archives Center - Provides historical information and links to research resources, as well as photo of Rodent Control Officer.
http://raims.com/ Regional: North America: United States: New York: Counties: Ontario: Society and Culture (1)
- Shield Pest Control UK Limited - Pest control services for commercial and private premises, based in London and servicing the UK. Specialising in
birds, rodents and insects.
-- http://www.shieldpestcontrol.co.uk Regional: Europe: United Kingdom: Business and Economy: Construction and Maintenance: Contractors: Maintenance (1)
- Shoals Pest Control - Offers rodent and termite termination services.
-- http://www.shoalspestcontrol.com/ Regional: North America: United States: Alabama: Localities: S: Sheffield: Business and Economy (1)
- Lehmann Pest Control - Has tips on pest and rodent control and gives online estimates. Serves residential and commercial customers.
http://portland.msn.citysearch.com/E/V/PDXOR/0012/56/23 Regional: North America: United States: Oregon: Localities: N: Newberg: Business and Economy (1)
- Hydrex Pest Control - Providing pest control to the San Diego County area. Includes termite, rodent, and pest services, and contacts.
http://www.hydrexsd.com/ Regional: North America: United States: California: Counties: San Diego: Business and Economy: Home and
- Safeway Pest Control - Insect and rodent eradication services. Includes description of services, Bug of the Month, and contact details.
http://www.safewaypest.net/ Regional: North America: United States: Wisconsin: Localities: M: Muskego: Business and Economy (1)
- Shield Pest Control - Based in Brockley and specialising in birds, rodents and insects. Services offered and information on common pests.
http://www.shieldpestcontrol.co.uk/ Regional: Europe: United Kingdom: England: London: Lewisham: Business and Economy: Services (1)
- Barn Owl Headquarters - Information on the nesting boxes of Barn Owls and their usage for rodent control.
Science: Biology: Flora and Fauna: Animalia: Chordata: Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae (1)
- G.W.P. Rodent Products Inc. - Specialises in pest control. Includes contact details and product catalogue.
Regional: North America: Canada: Saskatchewan: Localities: M: Moose Jaw: Business and Economy (1)
- Berkeley Division of Environmental Health - Public agency details responsibilities and services, including business inspections, waste management, water quality protection,
and rodent control.
-- http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/environmentalhealth/ Regional: North America: United States: California: Localities: B: Berkeley: Science and Environment (1)
- Snyder's Termite and Pest Control, Inc. - Residential, commercial, industrial, and government pest, rodent, and termite control. Wild animal trapping,
dead animal removal, and ornamental pest control services.
-- http://www.snyderspest.com Regional: North America: United States: California: Localities: R: Riverside: Business and Economy (1)
- Department of Streets and Sanitation - News, programs, and services, snow route information, newsletters, and information on bureaus of forestry, rodent
control, electricity, sanitation, street operations, and traffic services.
Regional: North America: United States: Illinois: Localities: C: Chicago: Government (1)
- Sterling Pest Control Services - Pest control services, including control of rodents and termites.
Regional: Asia: India: Maharashtra: Localities: Mumbai: Business and Economy: Home and Garden (1)